## Plus Two (12th Class) Focus Area 2024 Malayalam

The Director of General Education has set up a focus area for the students of SSLC, Higher Secondary, and Vocational Higher Secondary, for the academic year 2023-23 from its official website or it can be directly downloaded from the link given at the bottom of this page. The majority of questions in the public exam question papers in 2023 will be based on the Focus area.

The focus area would be 60% of the total portions and the question paper would carry 70% of questions from this area. This year, the number of choices in the question paper would be lesser compared to the previous year. The choices would be given to the extent of 50% of extra marks.

## Plus Two Focus Area (Notes) 2023 – Overview

Education Board |
Directorate of Higher Secondary Education, Government of Kerala |

Parent organization |
Board of Higher Secondary Education Kerala |

Type of Education |
Kerala Governmental Board of Education |

Standard |
Plus Two |

Name of the Course |
Mugham, Malayalam, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Social Science, Maths, etc, |

Plus Two Focus Area 2023 PDF |
Download PDF |

Official Website |
www,dhsekerala.gov.in |

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for MATHS (Science Stream )

Chapter | Focus area |
---|---|

RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS |
1.2 Types of Relations 1.3 Types of Functions 1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function |

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS | 2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions |

MATRICES | 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Types of Matrices 3.4 Operations on Matrices 3.5 Transpose of a Matrix 3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices |

DETERMINANTS | 4.2 Determinant 4.3 Properties of Determinants 4.5 Minors and Cofactors 4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix 4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices |

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY |
5.2 Continuity 5.3 Differentiability 5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms 5.8 Mean Value Theorem |

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES |
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities 6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions 6.4 Tangents and Normals 6.6 Maxima and Minima |

INTEGRALS | 7.3.1 integration by substitution 7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions 7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions 7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1 7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution 7.10 Some Properties of Definite Integrals |

APPLICATION OF INTEGRALS |
8.2 Area under Simple Curves |

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS |
9.2 Basic Concepts 9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given 9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable. 9.5.3 Linear differential equations. |

VECTOR ALGEBRA | 10.4 Addition of Vectors 10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 10.6 Product of Two Vectors |

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY |
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space 11.5.1 Distance between skew lines 11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point. 11.6.3 Equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points |

LINEAR PROGRAMMING |
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear programming problems |

PROBABILITY | 13.2 Conditional Probability 13.4 independent Events 13.5 Bayes’ Theorem |

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for MATHS (Commerce Stream )

Chapter | Focus area |
---|---|

RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS |
1.2 Types of Relations 1.3 Types of Functions 1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function |

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS | 2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions |

MATRICES | 3.2 Matrix 3.3 Types of Matrices 3.4 Operations on Matrices 3.5 Transpose of a Matrix 3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices |

DETERMINANTS | 4.2 Determinant 4.4 Area of a Triangle. 4.5 Minors and Cofactors 4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix 4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices |

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY |
5.2 Continuity 5.3 Differentiability 5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms 5.8 Mean Value Theorem |

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES |
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities 6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions 6.4 Tangents and Normals |

INTEGRALS | 7.3.1 integration by substitution 7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions 7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions 7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1 7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution |

APPLICATION OF INTEGRALS |
8.2 Area under Simple Curves |

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS |
9.2 Basic Concepts 9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given 9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable. |

VECTOR ALGEBRA | 10.4 Addition of Vectors 10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 10.6 Product of Two Vectors |

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY |
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space 11.5.1 Distance between skew lines 11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point. 11.6.3 Three point form |

LINEAR PROGRAMMING |
12.2. Linear programming problem and its mathematical formulation. |

PROBABILITY | 13.2 Conditional Probability 13.4 independent Events 13.5 Bayes’ Theorem 13.6 Random variables and its probability distributions. |

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for PHYSICS

Name of Chapter | Focus Area |
---|---|

ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELD5 | 1.2 ELECTRIC CHARGE 1.5 BASIC PROPERTIES OF CHARGE 1.6 COULOMB’SLAW 1.8 ELECTRIC FIELD 1.9 ELECTRIC FIELD LINES 1.10 ELECTRIC FLUX 1.11 ELECTRIC DIPOLE 1.14 GAUSS’SLAW 1.15 APPLICATIONS OF GAUSS’ S LAW |

ELECTR OSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE | 2.2 ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL 2.3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT CHARGE 2.6 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES 2.11 CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE 2.12 THE PARALLEL P LATE CAPACITOR 2.14 COMBINATION OF CAPACITORS 2.15 ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR |

CURRENT ELECTRICITY | 3.4 OHM ‘S LAW 3.9 ELECTRICAL ENERGY, POWER 3.10 COMBINATION OF RESISTORS-SERIES AND PARALLEL 3.11 CELLS, EMF, INTERNAL RESISTANCE 3.13 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES 3.14 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE 3.15 METER BRIDGE 3.16 POTENTIOMETER |

MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM | 4.2 MAGNETIC FORCE 4.5 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT ELEMENT, BIOT -SAVART LAW 4.6 MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP 4.7 AMPERE’S CIRCUITAL LAW 4.10.1 TORQUE ON A RECTANGULAR CURRENT LOOP IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD 4.11 THE MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER |

MAGNETISM AND MATTER | 5.3 MAGNETISM AND GAUSS’S LAW 5.4 THE EARTH’S MAGNETISM 5.5 MAGNETISATION AND MAGNETIC INTENSITY |

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION | 6.4 FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION 6.5 LENZ ‘ S LAW AND CONSERVATION 6.8 EDDY CURRENTS 6.9 INDUCTANCE 6.10 AC GENERATOR |

ALTERNATING CURRENT | 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR 7.3 REPRESENTATION OF AC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BY ROTATING VECTORS-PHASORS 7.4 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO AN INDUCTOR 7.5 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A CAPACITOR 7.7 POWER IN AC CIRCUIT: THE POWER FACTOR |

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES | 8.2 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT 8.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE |

RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS | 9.2 REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY SPHERICAL MIRRORS 9.3 REFRACTION 9.5 REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES AND BY LENSES 9.6 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM 9.8.1 THE MICROSCOPE |

WAVE OPTICS | 10.2 HUYGENS PRINCIPLE 10.5 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT WAVE AND YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT 10.7 POLARISATION |

DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER | 11.3 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT 11.6 EINSTEIN’ S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION: ENERGY QUANTUM OF RADIATION 11.7 P ARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT: THE PHOTON |

ATOMS | 12.4 BOHR MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM 12.6 DE BROGLIE’S EXPLANATION OF BOHR’S SECOND POSTULATE OF QUANTISATION |

NUCLEI | 13.3 SIZE OF THE NUCLEUS 13.5 NUCLEAR FORCE 13.6 RADIOACTIVITY |

SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS | 14.3 INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR 14.4 EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR 14.7 APPLICATION OF JUNCTION DIODE AS A RECTIFIER 14.9 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND LOGIC GATES |

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for CHEMISTRY

Name of Chapter | Focus Area |
---|---|

The solid state | 1.2 Amorphous and crystalline solids 1.4.1 Primitive and Centred Unit Cells 1.5 Number of atoms in a unit cell 1.9.1 Types of point defects 1.10 Electrical properties 1.11 Magnetic properties |

Solutions | 2.3.2 solubility of gas in liquids 2.4.1 Vapour pressure of liquid-liquid solutions (Raoult’s law) 2.5 Ideal and non ideal solutions 2.6 Colligative properties and determination of molar mass |

Electrochemistry | 3.3 Nemst equation 3.4.2. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity withconcentration 3.6.2 Secondary Batteries 3.7 Fuel cells |

Chemical kinetics | 4.2 Factors influencing rate of a reaction 4.3.2 First order reactions and its half life period 4.4 Pseudo first order reaction 4.5 Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction- Arrhenius equation |

Surface chemistry | 5.1.3 Types of Adsorption 5.1.4 Adsorption isotherms 5.2.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis 5.4 Classification of colloids (5.4.2 and 5.4.3) 5.4.6 Properties of Colloidal Solutions (Tyndall effect, Electrophoresis) 5.5 Emulsions |

General principles and Process of Isolation of elements – |
6.2 Concentration of ores 6.3 Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore (Calcination and Roasting) 6.4.1 Applications —Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide 6.5 Hall Heroult process (Extraction of Al) 6.7 Refining (Electrolytic refining and Vapour phase refining) |

The P-block elements | 7.3 Ammonia 7.5 Nitric acid 7.8 Phosphorus halides 7.17 Sulphuric acid 7.22 Inter halogen compounds |

The d-and f-block elements | 8.3 General properties of Transition Elements (Magnetic properties, formation coloured ions, formation complexes and catalytic property 8.4 Some important compounds of Transition elements (Potassium dichromate only) 8.5.2 Atomic and ionic sizes 8.7 Some applications of d- and f-block elements |

Coordination compounds | 9.3 Nomenclature of coordination compounds 9.4 Isomerism in coordination compounds 9.5.2 Magnetic properties of coordination compounds 9.6 Bonding in metal carbonyls |

Haloalkanes and haloarenes | 10.4.1 Preparation from alcohols 10.4.3 Halogen exchange 10.5 Preparation of haloarenes (By Sandmeyer’s reaction) 10.7.1 Reactions of haloalkanes (Nucleophilic substitiution) 10.7.2 Reactions of haloarenes (Electrophilic substitution) |

Alcohols, phenols and ethers | 11.4.1 Preparation of alcohols( from carbonyl compounds and Grignard reagent) 11.4.2 Preparation of phenol (from haloarenes and diazonium salts) 11.4.4 Chemical reactions (Lucas test, dehydration, nitration of phenol, Reimer Tiemann reaction) 11.5 Some Commercially important alcohols- ethanol 11.6.1 Preparation of ethers-Williamson synthesis |

Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids | 12.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones ( By oxidation of alcohols, by deHydrogenation of alcohols, Rosenmund reduction, Etard reaction, Gatterman-Koch reaction, Friedel Craft’s reaction) 12.4 Chemical reactions (Reduction, Oxidation, Aldol reaction, Cannizzaro reaction) 12.7 Preparation of Carboxylic acid (from aldehydes and ketones, from alkyl benzene) 12.9 Chemical reactions (acidity, reaction with ammonia, Kolbe electrolysis, Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction. Ring substitution) |

Amines | 13.4 Preparation of amines (Reduction of nitrites, amides, Iloffinann Bromamide reaction) 13.6 Chemical reactions ( carbylamine reaction, Hinsberg test) 13.9 Chemical reactions of diazonium salts- Sandmaeyer reaction, coupling reaction |

Biomolecules | 14.1.1 Classification of carbohydrates 14.1.2 Monosaccharides (Preparation of glucose from sucrose) 14.1.3 Disaccharides (glycosidic linkage, invert sugar) 14.1.4 Starch, glycogen 14.2.4 Denaturation of protein 14.5.3 Biological functions of nucleic acids |

Polymers | 15.1 Classification of polymers 15.2.1.2 Some important Addition polymers ( Polythene, Teflon) 15.5.2.1 Some important condensation polymers (Nylon 6, 6 and Nylon 6) 15.2.4 Rubber ( Natural rubber, vulcanisation) |

Chemistry in Everyday life | 16.3.1 Antacid 16.3.3 Neurologically active drugs 16.3.4 Antimicrobials antiseptics, disinfectants) |

### Plus Two Focus Area 2023

- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Malayalam PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- English PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Hindi PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Arabic PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Sanskrit PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Urdu PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Tamil PDF
- Plus Two Focus Area 2023- Kannada PDF

**You can download the Plus Two Focus Area 2023 PDF using the link given below.**