# Plus Two (12th Class) Focus Area 2024 Malayalam PDF

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## Plus Two (12th Class) Focus Area 2024 Malayalam

The Director of General Education has set up a focus area for the students of SSLC, Higher Secondary, and Vocational Higher Secondary, for the academic year 2023-23 from its official website or it can be directly downloaded from the link given at the bottom of this page. The majority of questions in the public exam question papers in 2023 will be based on the Focus area.

The focus area would be 60% of the total portions and the question paper would carry 70% of questions from this area. This year, the number of choices in the question paper would be lesser compared to the previous year. The choices would be given to the extent of 50% of extra marks.

## Plus Two Focus Area (Notes) 2023 – Overview

 Education Board Directorate of Higher Secondary Education, Government of Kerala Parent organization Board of Higher Secondary Education Kerala Type of Education Kerala Governmental Board of Education Standard Plus Two Name of the Course Mugham, Malayalam, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Social Science, Maths, etc, Plus Two Focus Area 2023 PDF Download PDF Official Website www,dhsekerala.gov.in

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for MATHS (Science Stream )

Chapter Focus area
RELATIONS AND
FUNCTIONS
1.2 Types of Relations
1.3 Types of Functions
1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
MATRICES 3.2 Matrix
3.3 Types of Matrices
3.4 Operations on Matrices
3.5 Transpose of a Matrix
3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
DETERMINANTS 4.2 Determinant
4.3 Properties of Determinants
4.5 Minors and Cofactors
4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices
CONTINUITY AND
DIFFERENTIABILITY
5.2 Continuity
5.3 Differentiability
5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
5.8 Mean Value Theorem
APPLICATION OF
DERIVATIVES
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities
6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions
6.4 Tangents and Normals
6.6 Maxima and Minima
INTEGRALS 7.3.1 integration by substitution
7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions
7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions
7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1
7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
7.10 Some Properties of Definite Integrals
APPLICATION OF
INTEGRALS
8.2 Area under Simple Curves
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9.2 Basic Concepts
9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given
9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable.
9.5.3 Linear differential equations.
VECTOR ALGEBRA 10.4 Addition of Vectors
10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
10.6 Product of Two Vectors
THREE DIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space
11.5.1 Distance between skew lines
11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point.
11.6.3 Equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points
LINEAR
PROGRAMMING
12.2.2 Graphical method of solving linear
programming problems
PROBABILITY 13.2 Conditional Probability
13.4 independent Events
13.5 Bayes’ Theorem

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for MATHS (Commerce Stream )

Chapter Focus area
RELATIONS AND
FUNCTIONS
1.2 Types of Relations
1.3 Types of Functions
1.4 Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 2.3 Properties of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
MATRICES 3.2 Matrix
3.3 Types of Matrices
3.4 Operations on Matrices
3.5 Transpose of a Matrix
3.6 Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
DETERMINANTS 4.2 Determinant
4.4 Area of a Triangle.
4.5 Minors and Cofactors
4.6 Adjoint and Inverse of a Matrix
4.7 Applications of Determinants and Matrices
CONTINUITY AND
DIFFERENTIABILITY
5.2 Continuity
5.3 Differentiability
5.6 Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
5.8 Mean Value Theorem
APPLICATION OF
DERIVATIVES
6.2 Rate of Change of Quantities
6.3 Increasing and Decreasing Functions
6.4 Tangents and Normals
INTEGRALS 7.3.1 integration by substitution
7.4 Integrals of Some Particular Functions
7.5 Integration by Partial Fractions
7.6 Integration by parts and 7.6.1
7.9 Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
APPLICATION OF
INTEGRALS
8.2 Area under Simple Curves
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
9.2 Basic Concepts
9.4 Formation of a Differential Equation whose General solution is given
9.5.1 Differential equations with variables separable.
VECTOR ALGEBRA 10.4 Addition of Vectors
10.5 Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
10.6 Product of Two Vectors
THREE DIMENSIONAL
GEOMETRY
11.3 Equation of a Line in Space
11.5.1 Distance between skew lines
11.6.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point.
11.6.3 Three point form
LINEAR
PROGRAMMING
12.2. Linear programming problem and its mathematical formulation.
PROBABILITY 13.2 Conditional Probability
13.4 independent Events
13.5 Bayes’ Theorem
13.6 Random variables and its probability distributions.

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for PHYSICS

Name of Chapter Focus Area
ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELD5 1.2 ELECTRIC CHARGE
1.5 BASIC PROPERTIES OF CHARGE
1.6 COULOMB’SLAW
1.8 ELECTRIC FIELD
1.9 ELECTRIC FIELD LINES
1.10 ELECTRIC FLUX
1.11 ELECTRIC DIPOLE
1.14 GAUSS’SLAW
1.15 APPLICATIONS OF GAUSS’ S LAW
ELECTR OSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE 2.2 ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL
2.3 POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT CHARGE
2.6 EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
2.11 CAPACITORS AND CAPACITANCE
2.12 THE PARALLEL P LATE CAPACITOR
2.14 COMBINATION OF CAPACITORS
2.15 ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR
CURRENT ELECTRICITY 3.4 OHM ‘S LAW
3.9 ELECTRICAL ENERGY, POWER
3.10 COMBINATION OF RESISTORS-SERIES AND PARALLEL
3.11 CELLS, EMF, INTERNAL RESISTANCE
3.13 KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
3.14 WHEATSTONE BRIDGE
3.15 METER BRIDGE
3.16 POTENTIOMETER
MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM 4.2 MAGNETIC FORCE
4.5 MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CURRENT ELEMENT, BIOT -SAVART LAW
4.6 MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP
4.7 AMPERE’S CIRCUITAL LAW
4.10.1 TORQUE ON A RECTANGULAR CURRENT LOOP IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD
4.11 THE MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER
MAGNETISM AND MATTER 5.3 MAGNETISM AND GAUSS’S LAW
5.4 THE EARTH’S MAGNETISM
5.5 MAGNETISATION AND MAGNETIC INTENSITY
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 6.4 FARADAY’S LAW OF INDUCTION
6.5 LENZ ‘ S LAW AND CONSERVATION
6.8 EDDY CURRENTS
6.9 INDUCTANCE
6.10 AC GENERATOR
ALTERNATING CURRENT 7.2 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A RESISTOR
7.3 REPRESENTATION OF AC CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BY ROTATING VECTORS-PHASORS
7.4 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO AN INDUCTOR
7.5 AC VOLTAGE APPLIED TO A CAPACITOR
7.7 POWER IN AC CIRCUIT: THE POWER FACTOR
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 8.2 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT
8.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 9.2 REFLECTION OF LIGHT BY SPHERICAL MIRRORS
9.3 REFRACTION
9.5 REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACES AND BY LENSES
9.6 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
9.8.1 THE MICROSCOPE
WAVE OPTICS 10.2 HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
10.5 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT WAVE AND YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
10.7 POLARISATION
DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER 11.3 PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
11.6 EINSTEIN’ S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION: ENERGY QUANTUM OF RADIATION
11.7 P ARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT: THE PHOTON
ATOMS 12.4 BOHR MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM
12.6 DE BROGLIE’S EXPLANATION OF BOHR’S SECOND POSTULATE OF QUANTISATION
NUCLEI 13.3 SIZE OF THE NUCLEUS
13.5 NUCLEAR FORCE
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS: MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS 14.3 INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
14.4 EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
14.7 APPLICATION OF JUNCTION DIODE AS A RECTIFIER
14.9 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND LOGIC GATES

### Plus Two Exam 2023- Focus Areas for CHEMISTRY

Name of Chapter Focus Area
The solid state 1.2 Amorphous and crystalline solids
1.4.1 Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
1.5 Number of atoms in a unit cell
1.9.1 Types of point defects
1.10 Electrical properties
1.11 Magnetic properties
Solutions 2.3.2 solubility of gas in liquids
2.4.1 Vapour pressure of liquid-liquid solutions (Raoult’s law)
2.5 Ideal and non ideal solutions
2.6 Colligative properties and determination of molar mass
Electrochemistry 3.3 Nemst equation
3.4.2. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity withconcentration
3.6.2 Secondary Batteries
3.7 Fuel cells
Chemical kinetics 4.2 Factors influencing rate of a reaction
4.3.2 First order reactions and its half life period
4.4 Pseudo first order reaction
4.5 Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction- Arrhenius equation
Surface chemistry 5.1.3 Types of Adsorption
5.2.1 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis
5.4 Classification of colloids (5.4.2 and 5.4.3)
5.4.6 Properties of Colloidal Solutions (Tyndall effect, Electrophoresis)
5.5 Emulsions
General principles and
Process of Isolation of elements –
6.2 Concentration of ores
6.3 Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore (Calcination and Roasting)
6.4.1 Applications —Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide
6.5 Hall Heroult process (Extraction of Al)
6.7 Refining (Electrolytic refining and Vapour phase refining)
The P-block elements 7.3 Ammonia
7.5 Nitric acid
7.8 Phosphorus halides
7.17 Sulphuric acid
7.22 Inter halogen compounds
The d-and f-block elements 8.3 General properties of Transition Elements (Magnetic properties, formation coloured ions, formation complexes and catalytic property
8.4 Some important compounds of Transition elements (Potassium dichromate only)
8.5.2 Atomic and ionic sizes
8.7 Some applications of d- and f-block elements
Coordination compounds 9.3 Nomenclature of coordination compounds
9.4 Isomerism in coordination compounds
9.5.2 Magnetic properties of coordination compounds
9.6 Bonding in metal carbonyls
Haloalkanes and haloarenes 10.4.1 Preparation from alcohols
10.4.3 Halogen exchange
10.5 Preparation of haloarenes (By Sandmeyer’s reaction)
10.7.1 Reactions of haloalkanes (Nucleophilic substitiution)
10.7.2 Reactions of haloarenes (Electrophilic substitution)
Alcohols, phenols and ethers 11.4.1 Preparation of alcohols( from carbonyl compounds and
Grignard reagent)
11.4.2 Preparation of phenol (from haloarenes and diazonium salts)
11.4.4 Chemical reactions (Lucas test, dehydration, nitration of
phenol, Reimer Tiemann reaction)
11.5 Some Commercially important alcohols- ethanol
11.6.1 Preparation of ethers-Williamson synthesis
Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids 12.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones ( By oxidation of alcohols, by deHydrogenation of alcohols, Rosenmund reduction, Etard reaction, Gatterman-Koch reaction, Friedel Craft’s reaction)
12.4 Chemical reactions (Reduction, Oxidation, Aldol reaction, Cannizzaro reaction)
12.7 Preparation of Carboxylic acid (from aldehydes and ketones, from alkyl benzene)
12.9 Chemical reactions (acidity, reaction with ammonia, Kolbe electrolysis, Hell-Volhard Zelinsky reaction. Ring substitution)
Amines 13.4 Preparation of amines (Reduction of nitrites, amides, Iloffinann Bromamide reaction)
13.6 Chemical reactions ( carbylamine reaction, Hinsberg test)
13.9 Chemical reactions of diazonium salts- Sandmaeyer reaction, coupling reaction
Biomolecules 14.1.1 Classification of carbohydrates
14.1.2 Monosaccharides (Preparation of glucose from sucrose)
14.1.3 Disaccharides (glycosidic linkage, invert sugar)
14.1.4 Starch, glycogen
14.2.4 Denaturation of protein
14.5.3 Biological functions of nucleic acids
Polymers 15.1 Classification of polymers
15.2.1.2 Some important Addition polymers ( Polythene, Teflon)
15.5.2.1 Some important condensation polymers (Nylon 6, 6 and Nylon 6)
15.2.4 Rubber ( Natural rubber, vulcanisation)
Chemistry in Everyday life 16.3.1 Antacid
16.3.3 Neurologically active drugs
16.3.4 Antimicrobials antiseptics, disinfectants)