Machine Learning – A Probabilistic Perspective PDF

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Machine Learning – A Probabilistic Perspective

Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) and computer science that focuses on the use of data and algorithms to imitate the way that humans learn, gradually improving its accuracy. IBM has a rich history with machine learning. Machine learning is used in internet search engines, email filters to sort out spam, websites to make personalized recommendations, banking software to detect unusual transactions, and lots of apps on our phones such as voice recognition.

Machine learning is an important component of the growing field of data science. Through the use of statistical methods, algorithms are trained to make classifications or predictions, and to uncover key insights in data mining projects. These insights subsequently drive decision making within applications and businesses, ideally impacting key growth metrics. As big data continues to expand and grow, the market demand for data scientists will increase. They will be required to help identify the most relevant business questions and the data to answer them. Machine Learning is defined as a technology that is used to train machines to perform various actions such as predictions, recommendations, estimations, etc., based on historical data or past experience.

Machine Learning – A Probabilistic Perspective

There are three key aspects of Machine Learning, which are as follows:

  • Task: A task is defined as the main problem in which we are interested. This task/problem can be related to the predictions and recommendations and estimations, etc.
  • Experience: It is defined as learning from historical or past data and used to estimate and resolve future tasks.
  • Performance: It is defined as the capacity of any machine to resolve any machine learning task or problem and provide the best outcome for the same. However, performance is dependent on the type of machine learning problems.

Techniques in Machine Learning

1. Supervised Learning

Supervised learning is applicable when a machine has sample data, i.e., input as well as output data with correct labels. Correct labels are used to check the correctness of the model using some labels and tags.

2. Unsupervised Learning

In unsupervised learning, a machine is trained with some input samples or labels only, while output is not known. The training information is neither classified nor labeled; hence, a machine may not always provide correct output compared to supervised learning.

3. Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning is a feedback-based machine learning technique. In such type of learning, agents (computer programs) need to explore the environment, perform actions, and on the basis of their actions, they get rewards as feedback. For each good action, they get a positive reward, and for each bad action, they get a negative reward. The goal of a Reinforcement learning agent is to maximize the positive rewards. Since there is no labeled data, the agent is bound to learn by its experience only.

4. Semi-supervised Learning

Semi-supervised Learning is an intermediate technique of both supervised and unsupervised learning. It performs actions on datasets having few labels as well as unlabeled data. However, it generally contains unlabeled data. Hence, it also reduces the cost of the machine learning model as labels are costly, but for corporate purposes, it may have few labels. Further, it also increases the accuracy and performance of the machine learning model.

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