Linux Commands List PDF

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Linux Commands List

Linux commands is a popular alternative to Microsoft Windows, and if you choose to use this low-cost or free operating system, you need to know some basic Linux commands to configure, operate, and interact with your system smoothly.

Understanding the most basic Linux commands will allow you to successfully navigate directories, manipulate files, change permissions, display information such as disk space, and more. Obtaining basic knowledge of the most common commands will help you easily execute tasks via the command line. When dealing with the Linux operating system, commands are required as inputs to inform or direct a computer program to perform a specific operation.

Linux Commands List

Command Description
cat [filename] Display file’s contents to the standard output device
(usually your monitor).
cd /directorypath Change to directory.
chmod [options] mode filename Change a file’s permissions.
chown [options] filename Change who owns a file.
clear Clear a command line screen/window for a fresh start.
cp [options] source destination Copy files and directories.
date [options] Display or set the system date and time.
df [options] Display used and available disk space.
du [options] Show how much space each file takes up.
file [options] filename Determine what type of data is within a file.
find [pathname] [expression] Search for files matching a provided pattern.
grep [options] pattern [filesname] Search files or output for a particular pattern.
kill [options] pid Stop a process. If the process refuses to stop, use kill -9 pid.
less [options] [filename] View the contents of a file one page at a time.
ln [options] source [destination] Create a shortcut.
locate filename Search a copy of your filesystem for the specified
lpr [options] Send a print job.
ls [options] List directory contents.
man [command] Display the help information for the specified command.
mkdir [options] directory Create a new directory.
mv [options] source destination Rename or move file(s) or directories.
passwd [name [password]] Change the password or allow (for the system administrator) to
change any password.
ps [options] Display a snapshot of the currently running processes.
pwd Display the pathname for the current directory.
rm [options] directory Remove (delete) file(s) and/or directories.
rmdir [options] directory Delete empty directories.
ssh [options] user@machine Remotely log in to another Linux machine, over the network.
Leave an ssh session by typing exit.
su [options] [user [arguments]] Switch to another user account.
tail [options] [filename] Display the last n lines of a file (the default is
tar [options] filename Store and extract files from a tarfile (.tar) or tarball (.tar.gz or .tgz).
top Displays the resources being used on your system. Press q to
touch filename Create an empty file with the specified name.
who [options] Display who is logged on.

Top 50 Linux Commands

  1. ls – The most frequently used command in Linux to list directories
  2. pwd – Print working directory command in Linux
  3. cd – Linux command to navigate through directories
  4. mkdir – Command used to create directories in Linux
  5. mv – Move or rename files in Linux
  6. cp – Similar usage as mv but for copying files in Linux
  7. rm – Delete files or directories
  8. touch – Create blank/empty files
  9. ln – Create symbolic links (shortcuts) to other files
  10. cat – Display file contents on the terminal
  11. clear – Clear the terminal display
  12. echo – Print any text that follows the command
  13. less – Linux command to display paged outputs in the terminal
  14. man – Access manual pages for all Linux commands
  15. uname – Linux command to get basic information about the OS
  16. whoami – Get the active username
  17. tar – Command to extract and compress files in Linux
  18. grep – Search for a string within an output
  19. head – Return the specified number of lines from the top
  20. tail – Return the specified number of lines from the bottom
  21. diff – Find the difference between two files
  22. cmp – Allows you to check if two files are identical
  23. comm – Combines the functionality of diff and cmp
  24. sort – Linux command to sort the content of a file while outputting
  25. export – Export environment variables in Linux
  26. zip – Zip files in Linux
  27. unzip – Unzip files in Linux
  28. ssh – Secure Shell command in Linux
  29. service – Linux command to start and stop services
  30. ps – Display active processes
  31. kill and killall – Kill active processes by process ID or name
  32. df – Display disk filesystem information
  33. mount – Mount file systems in Linux
  34. chmod – Command to change file permissions
  35. chown – Command for granting ownership of files or folders
  36. ifconfig – Display network interfaces and IP addresses
  37. traceroute – Trace all the network hops to reach the destination
  38. wget – Direct download files from the internet
  39. ufw – Firewall command
  40. iptables – Base firewall for all other firewall utilities to interface with
  41. apt, pacman, yum, rpm – Package managers depending on the distro
  42. sudo – Command to escalate privileges in Linux
  43. cal – View a command-line calendar
  44. alias – Create custom shortcuts for your regularly used commands
  45. dd – Majorly used for creating bootable USB sticks
  46. whereis – Locate the binary, source, and manual pages for a command
  47. whatis – Find what a command is used for
  48. top – View active processes live with their system usage
  49. useradd and usermod – Add new user or change existing users data
  50. passwd – Create or update passwords for existing users

Top 100 Linux Commands

  1. Cat (Concatenate)
  2. aptitude
  3. cal
  4. bc
  5. chage
  6. df
  7. help
  8. pwd (Print Work Directory)
  9. ls
  10. factor
  11. uname
  12. ping
  13. mkdir
  14. gzip
  15. whatis
  16. who
  17. free
  18. top
  19. sl
  20. banner
  21. aafire
  22. echo
  23. finger
  24. groups
  25. head
  26. man
  27. passwd
  28. w
  29. whoami
  30. history
  31. login
  32. lscpu
  33. mv
  34. ps
  35. kill
  36. tail
  37. cksum
  38. cmp
  39. env
  40. hostname
  41. hwclock
  42. lshw
  43. nano
  44. rm
  45. ifconfig
  46. clear
  47. su
  48. wget
  49. yes
  50. last
  51. locate
  52. iostat
  53. kmod
  54. lsusb
  55. pstree
  56. sudo
  57. apt
  58. zip
  59. unzip
  60. shutdown
  61. dir
  62. cd
  63. reboot
  64. sort
  65. tac
  66. exit
  67. ionice
  68. diff
  69. dmidecode
  70. expr
  71. gunzip
  72. hostnamectl
  73. iptable
  74. killall
  75. netstat
  76. lsof
  77. bzip2
  78. service
  79. vmstat
  80. mpstat
  81. usermod
  82. touch
  83. uniq
  84. wc
  85. pmap
  86. rpm
  87. ssh
  88. telnet
  89. nice
  90. nproc
  91. scp
  92. sleep
  93. split
  94. stat
  95. lsblk
  96. hdparm
  97. chrt
  98. useradd
  99. userdel
  100. usermod

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