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GPAT 2021 Syllabus

GPAT 2021 Application Form has been released on 23rd December 2020. It is organized by the National Testing Agency (NTA). GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) is conducted once in every year for admission to various M. Pharma or its equivalent courses across the country. On qualifying this national level examination, the candidates will get admission to 24000 seats in nearly 841 participating pharmacy institutions.

Physical Chemistry

  • Composition & physical states of matter

Intermolecular forces & their impact on the state of the matter. Various physical properties of matter, dipole moment, dielectric constant, Van Der Waal’s equation & critical phenomenon, liquefaction of gases, aerosols.

  • Colligative Properties

The liquid state, vapor pressure, ideal & real solutions. Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties.

  • Thermodynamics

First, second & third law of thermodynamics, Thermochemical laws, isothermic & adiabatic processes, reversible processes, work of expansion, heat content, enthalpy, heat capacity. Gibb’s & Helmholtz equation & chemical potential.

  • Refractive index

Refractive index, specific refractivity, molar refractivity, refractometers.

  • Solutions

Solubility, factors affecting solubility, solubility curves. Types of solutions, effect of co-solvency, pH & other factors on solubility. Solubility of gases in liquids, liquids in liquids, & solids in liquids, critical solution temperature, law of partitioning & its applications. Solute-solvent interactions. Expression of the concentration of pharmaceutical solutions & calculations. Molarity, molality, mole fraction & percentage expressions.

  • Electrochemistry

Properties of electrolyte solutions, electrolysis. Faraday’s law of electrolysis, electron transport, electrical cell, single electrode potential, concentration cells, half-cells & half-cell potential, types of half cells, sign convention, Nernst equation, salt bridge, electromotive series, standard potential, SHE. Measuring the relative voltage of half cells, Calculation of standard potential. Reference & indicator electrodes. Standard oxidation-reduction potential.

  • Ionic equilibrium

Theory of conductivity, equivalent conductance, mobility of ions, specific conductance. 8. Kinetics Order of reactions, derivation & internal form of rate laws, molarities of reaction, derivation of rate constants.

Physical Chemistry

  • Matter, properties of matter

States of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heat and vapor pressure, sublimationcritical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols- inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glasses state, solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism.

  • Micromeritics and powder rheology

Particle size and distribution, average particle size number and weight distribution, particle number, methods of determining particle size and volume, optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, determining surface areas, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement densities, bulkiness and flow properties.

  • Surface and interfacial phenomenon

Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tension, spreading coefficient, adsorption and liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, absorption at solid interfaces, solid gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interfaces.

  • Viscosity and rheology

Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematics viscosity, effect of temperature, non- Newtonian systems, pseudoplastics, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulations, determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometer, application of theology in pharmacy

  • Dispersion systems

    • Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, application of colloids in pharmacy.
    • Suspensions and emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, significance of electrical properties in dispersions, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations, emulsions: types, theories, physical stability.
  • Complexation

Classification of complexes, methods of preparations and analysis, applications.

  • Buffer

Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general. Buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparations and stability, buffered isotonic solutions. Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.

  • Solubility

    • a. Miscibility-influence of foreign substances three component systems;
      • dielectric constant and solubility,
      • solubility of solids in liquids
      • ideal and non-ideal solutions
      • solvation and association in solutions
      • solubility of salts in water
      • solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte
      • calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH, influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs
      • combined effect of pH and solvents, distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents, effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition, extraction, preservatives action of weak acids in emulsions, drug action and distribution coefficient.
    • b. Concepts of dissolution and diffusion.

Organic Chemistry

  • General principles

A brief review of classification & sources of organic compounds, sp3 , sp 2 , sp hybridization, sigma & pi- bonds, bond lengths, bond angles & bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out. An overview of bond polarization, hydrogen bonds, inductive effects, resonance, and hyperconjugation be taken. Concept of homolytic & heterolytic bond fission, acidity & basicity with different theories should be covered briefly. Ease of formation & order of stabilities of electron deficient & electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered. Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity & their importance in chemical reactions should be covered. Calculations for determining empirical & molecular formula should be covered.

  • Different classes of compounds

The following classes of compounds should be taught in detail with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations, physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].

    • Alkanes [including cyclic compounds]
    • Alkenes [including cyclic compounds]
    • Alkynes [only open-chain compounds]
    • Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds
    • Alkyl halides
    • Aldehydes & Ketones
    • Carboxylic acids • All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids.
  • Protection & deprotection of groups

Introduction to protection & deprotection of functional groups. Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, & carbonyl groups. The significance of these in syntheses should be explained.

  • Aromaticity & chemistry of aromatic compounds

Concept of aromaticity, Huckel’s rule & its use in determining the aromatic/non-aromatic character of a compound. A brief coverage of structure of benzene. Detailed coverage of electrophilic & nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Reactivity & orientation in these reactions. Reactivity & orientation in mono- & disubstituted benzenes. Benzyne mechanism.

  • Different aromatic classes of compounds

The following classes of compounds with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations, physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].

    • Aromatic hydrocarbons.
    • Phenolic compounds.
    • Aromatic & aliphatic amines.
    • Diazonium salts.
    • Aromatic nitro- compounds, aryl halides, & ethers.
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Syntheses & reactions with mechanisms of bi & tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, & phenanthrene.

  • Carbonyl Chemistry

Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions & their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable.

    • Wolf-Kishner reduction & Huang-Minlong modification.
    • Reduction of arylsulfonyl hydrazine/hydrazones to alkanes.
    • Bamford Steven reaction.
    • DCC Oxidation of alcohol.
    • Michael addition / 1,4-addition / conjugate addition.
    • Mannich condensation / reaction.
    • Robinson annulation.
    • Stobbe condensation.
    • Darzen’s glycidic ester synthesis.
    • Beckmann rearrangement.
    • Baeyer Villiger rearrangement.
    • Curtius, Wolff, & Lossen rearrangements.
    • Willgerodt rearrangement.
    • Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement.
    • Methylene transfer reactions. Use of diazomethane & sulphur ylides in the same.
    • Mono- & dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.
    • Formation & use of enol ethers, enol acetates & enamines as protective groups & in regiospecific alkylations.
  • Heterocyclic Chemistry

IUPAC Nomenclature of heterocyclic rings [3-10 membered] containing O, S, & N atoms. Nomenclature of above rings containing mono-, di-, & multiple [same or different] heteroatoms should also be covered. Nomenclature of 2 & 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, & multiple heteroatoms [same or different] should also be covered. Syntheses & reactions of three to sixmembered rings in detail. Syntheses of five & six-membered rings containing mono- or any diheteroatoms [O, S, & N]. Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxazole, benzothiazole, & benzimidazole, benzotriazole, and benzothiazole.

  • Bridged rings

Bridged ring systems & their nomenclature.C8, C9, C11 bridged bicyclic alkanes. Chemistry of hexamine, morphan, biperiden, amantadine, diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane

  • Kinetic & thermodynamic control

Kinetic & thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation & alkylation of enamine reactions.

  • Stereochemistry Stereochemistry

Chirality & asymmetry [introduction of the same to S, P, & N]. Definition & classification [different types of isomerisms]. Enantiomers, diastereomers. Enantiomerism & diastereomerism. Meso compounds & their optical activity. Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds. Newman projection formulae & their significance. Conformational analysis of nbutane. Absolute & relative configuration. Assigning R & S configuration based on Cahn Ingold & Prelog system. Racemic mixture- its definition & resolution. Definitions of terms stereoselective, stereospecific, Enantiomeric excess & diastereomeric excess. Stereochemistry in cyclic systems. Conformations of cyclohexane. Cis-trans relationship in cyclohexane. Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3- & 1,4- disubstituted cyclohexanes. Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations. Chair conformations of cis-, & trans-decalins, perhydrophenanthrenes, & a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus. An introduction to atropisomerism.

  • Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates. Definition & classification. D & L nomenclature in sugars. Different ways of drawing / representing a sugar molecule [including cyclic Structure], interconversion of these representations. Anomers & epimers. Mutarotation. Reactions of glucose. Chain extension & chain reduction of a sugar.

  • Amino acids & proteins

Amino acids & proteins. Definition & classification. D & L Amino acids, natural, essential, & nonessential amino acids. Denaturation, Strecker, Gabriel phthalimide methods for the preparation of amino acids. Peptide bond & its formation. Two protective groups each, for -NH2 & -COOH functionalities during protein synthesis. Sequencing of a protein by chemical & enzymatic methods.

  • Pericyclic reactions

Pericyclic reactions. Concept of HOMO & LUMO. Drawing of HOMO & LUMO of 1, 3-butadiene, allylic cation, radical & anion, & 1, 3, 5-hexatriene, Diel’s-Alder & retro Diel’s Alder reaction.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry I

1. Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

    • Pharmaceutical Impurities: Impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources, types & effects of impurities. Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury & for chloride & sulphate as per Indian Pharmacopoeia [I. P.].
    • Monographs: Monograph & its importance, various tests included in monographs as per I. P. A study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, & pharmaceutical uses of sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulphate, light & heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride & ferrous gluconate.
    • Isotopes: Isotopes- stable & radioactive, mode & rate of decay. Types & measurement of radioactivity. Radiopharmaceuticals & their diagnostic & therapeutic applications in pharmacy & medicine such as 125I, 32P, 51Cr, 60Co, 59Fe, 99Tc-M. Radiocontrast media, use of BaSO4 in medicine.
    • Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, & anticaries agents

2. Medicinal Chemistry

    • Therapeutic classes of drugs: The following topics should be dealt with covering nomenclature [including stereochemical aspects], biological activity [including side & toxic effects], mode of action, structure-activity relationship [where ever applicable] & syntheses of reasonable molecules.
      • General anesthetics.
      • Local anesthetics.
      • Diagnostic agents.
      • Coagulants, anticoagulants & plasma expanders.
      • Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, & astringents.
      • Purgatives, laxatives & antidiarrhoeal agents.
    • Various classes of therapeutic agents: A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.
      • Antimalarials
      • Antiamoebic agents
      • Anthelmintic agents
      • Antibacterial sulpha drugs [only]
      • Quinolone antibacterials
      • Antimycobacterial drugs
      • Antifungal agents
      • Antiviral agents including HIV & anti-HIV drugs
      • Thyroid & antithyroid drugs
      • Antiallergic agents
      • Antiulcer agents & Proton Pump Inhibitors
      • Hypoglycemic agents
    • Different classes of therapeutic drugs: 

A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.

  1. (a) Sedative-hypnotics,  (b) Antiepileptic agents, (c) Neuroleptics, (d) Anti-anxiety drugs.
  2. Antibiotics:. Penicillins, cephalosporins & other beta-lactam antibiotics like imipenem & aztreonam. Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid & sulbactam. Chloramphenicol. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics. Lincomycins. Polypeptide antibiotics. Anticancer antibiotics.
  3. Steroids: Corticosteroids [gluco- & mineralocorticoids] & anti-inflammatory steroids. Sex steroids. Male & female contraceptive agents. Anabolic steroids. Anticancer agents.
    • Different classes of therapeutic drugs: A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective classes of drugs.
  1. Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics]. Morphine & all its structural modifications [peripheral & nuclear]. Narcotic agonists & antagonists [dual & pure]. Non-narcotic analgesics [NSAIDS]. Difference between narcotic & non-narcotic agents.
  2. Adrenergic drugs. Neurotransmitters & their role. General & specific adrenergic agonists & antagonists [up to alpha-2 & beta-2 only].
  3. III. Cholinergic agents. Muscarinic & nicotinic cholinergic agonists & antagonists [up to M2 & N2]. Neuronal [transmission] blockers.
  4. Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders. Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Central & peripheral muscle relaxants.
  5. Hypertensive, antihypertensive, & antianginal agents.
  6. Diuretics.
  7. Eicosanoids. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, & thromboxanes. Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, & inhibitors. 9. Introduction to quantitative structure-activity relationship. [QSAR]. Linear free energy relationship. Hammett’s equation. Use of substituent constants such as π, σ, Es, & physicochemical parameters such as pKa, partition coefficient, Rm, chemical shifts, molar refractivity, simple & valance molecular connectivity to indicate electronic effects, lipophilic effects, & steric effects. Introduction, methodology, advantages & disadvantages/limitations of Hansch analysis.
    • Asymmetric synthesis: Chirality, chiral pool, sources of various naturally available chiral compounds. Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio. Enantioselectivity & enantiospecificity. Enantiomeric & diastereomeric excess. Prochiral molecules. Asymmetric synthesis of captopril & propranolol.
    •  Combinatorial chemistry Introduction & basic terminology. Databases & libraries. Solid phase synthesis technique. Types of supports & linkers, Wang, Rink, & dihydropyran derivatized linkers. Reactions involving these linkers. Manual parallel & automated parallel synthesis. Houghton’s tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution. Mix & split method for the synthesis of tripeptides. Limitations of combinatorial synthesis. Introduction to throughput screening.

Pharmaceutics

  • Pharmacy Profession & Introduction to Pharmaceuticals: Pharmacy as a career, evaluation of Pharmacy, earlier period middle to modern ages. Definition, importance of pharmaceuticals, areas concerned, scope of Pharmaceutics, history and development of the profession of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical industry in India. A brief review of present Indian Pharma. Industry in global perspective.
  • Introduction to dosage form: Definition of the drug. New drug and dosage form. The desirable properties of a dosage form, the need of dosage form. Ideas about the available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system.
  • Sources of drug information: Introduction to Pharmacopoeia with reference to IP, BP, USP and International Pharmacopeia. Study of structure/features (index) general notice and compartment of monographs of excipients, drug and drug product. Other sources. Textbooks, journals, internet (drug information system, online database, patient/ consumer information and non- print material. Classification of information, primary, secondary and tertiary. Nomenclature of the drug.
  • Allopathic dosage form Merits/demerits, importance, formulation development – vehicles/excipients with examples for the dosage form: liquid dosage form: monophasic liquid dosage form. Aromatic waters, syrup, elixir, linctus, lotion, liniment, glycerites, solutions, spirits, ENT preparations, mixtures, paints, mouthwash.
  • Crude extract: Infusion, decoction, maceration, percolation, tincture and extract. Methods of preparations of dry, soft and liquid extract.
  • Allergenic extract: Types of allergens, preparation of extract, testing and standardization of extracts.
  • Biological products: Absorbable and non-absorbable material types, sutures and ligatures, processing, manufacturing, sterilization, packing, QC tests of materials like catgut and nylon.
  • Pharmaceutical Plant, location, layout: Plant location and layout of an industry. Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants. The layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet, the difference between scientific process and technological process, the layout of various departments, equipment, and product layout v/s process layout.
  • Dosage Form Necessities and Additives: Antioxidants, preservatives, coloring agents, flavoring agents and diluting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, ointment bases, solvents, and others.
  • Powders: Advantages and limitations as dosage form, manufacturing procedure and equipment, special care and problems in manufacturing powders, powders of IP, effervescent granules and salts.
  • Capsules: Hard gelatin capsules, shell formulation and manufacturing, capsule sizes, storage, filing, cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation. Soft gelatin capsules, shell formulation, formulation contents, filing, sealing and storage. Microencapsulation, advantages, encapsulation materials, methods of microencapsulation, I.P. formulations
  • Tablets: Types, ideal requirement, classification, granulation methods, general formulation, compression machines, different types of tooling’s, difficulties in tableting, troubleshooting aspects, evaluation, sugar coating, compression coating, film coating, problems in tablet coatings and their troubleshooting aspects. IP formulations.
  • Parenterals – product requiring sterile packaging: Definition, types advantages and limitations, general formulation, vehicles, production procedure, production facilities, controls, tests, selected IP injections, sterile powders, implants, emulsions, suspensions.
  • Suspensions: Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP suspensions.
  • Emulsions: Types, emulsifying agents, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP emulsions.
  • Suppositories: Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
  • Semisolids: Definitions, bases, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
  • Liquids(solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses): Definition, types, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.
  • Pharmaceutical Aerosols: Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications. Impacts of propellants on the environment.
  • Ophthalmic preparations: Requirement, formulation, methods of preparation, containers, evaluation, IP products.
  • Preformulations: Consideration of Importance, physical properties, physical forms, particle size, crystal forms, bulk control, solubility, wetting, flow cohesiveness, compressibility, organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of Chemical properties, hydrolysis, oxidation, recemization, polymerization, isomerization, decarboxylation, enzymatic decomposition, formulation additives, stabilizers, suspending and dispersing agents dyes, solid excipients etc. and its effect on quality of finished product.
  • Stability of formulated products: Requirements, drug regulatory aspects, pharmaceutical products stability, shelf life, overages, containers, closures. Reaction rate and order, acid-base catalysis, destabilization and accelerated stability testing.
  • Prolonged Action Pharmaceuticals: Benefits, limitations, oral products, terminology, drug elimination rate, types and construction of implants products, product evaluation, parenteral products, absorption and evaluation.
  • Novel Drug delivery system: Critical fluid technology, transdermal drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system, multiple emulsion, nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery system, aerosols, inhalation & new products reported etc.
  • GMP and Validation: Introduction to GMP, QC and QA. Concept and need of good manufacturing practice guidelines. Elements of GMP covering controls of area and processes and product. Regulations related to GMP. Introduction of the validation process. Types of validation. The brief methodology of process, equipment and instrument validation.
  • Packaging Materials: Role and features of Pharmaceutical packing materials. Glass, plastic, rubber, metal and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material. General quality control of pharmaceutical packages. Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging materials. Child resistant and pilfer-proof packaging.
  • Cosmetics: Formulation and preparation of dentifrices, hair creams, lipsticks, face powders, shaving preparations, skin creams, shampoos, hair dyes, depilatories, manicure preparations etc.
  • Pilot plant scale-up techniques: Need, organization and layout, scale-up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms. Technology transfer.

Pharmacology

  • General Pharmacology: Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope and source of drugs, dosage forms and routes of drug administration. Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors, classification and drug-receptor interactions, combined effects of drugs, factors modifying drug actions. Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics. Adverse drug reactions. Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies. Detailed pharmacology including classification, mechanism of action and therapeutic uses of following classes:
  • Nerohumoral transmission in autonomic and central nervous system: Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic). Neurohumoral transmission in the CNS with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide: Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role. Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part. Peptides and proteins as mediators: General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.
  • Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system: Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics, Ganglionic stimulants and blockers. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral). Local anesthetic agents. Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.
  • Pharmacology of central nervous system: General anesthetics. Alcohols and disulfiram. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens. Anti-epileptic drugs. Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics. Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
  • Pharmacology of cardiovascular system: Introduction of hemodynamics and Electrophysiology of heart. Page 18 of 54 Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs. Drugs used in congestive heart failure. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs. Drugs used in the therapy of shock. Haematinics, anticoagulants and haemostatic agents. Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs. Blood and plasma volume expanders.
  • Drugs acting on urinary system: Diuretics and anti-diuretics.
  • Drugs acting on Respiratory system: Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants. Respiratory stimulants
  • Pharmacology of Endocrine system: Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin and vitamin-D. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids. Androgens and anabolic steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. Drugs acting on the uterus.
  • Chemotherapy: General principles of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole. Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolons,. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Chemotherapy of malignancy.
  • Autacoids and their Antagonists: Histamine, 5-HT and their agonsists and antagonists. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin, bradykinin and substance P.,Analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.
  • Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract: Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs. Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and carminatives. Emetics and anti-emetics.
  • Chronopharmacology: Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clocks and their significance leading to Page 19 of 54 chronotherapy.
  • Immnopharmacology: Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants.
  • Vitamins & Minerals: Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases.
  • Principles of toxicology: Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning. Treatment of poisoning due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute, sub acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines (guidelines 420,423,425,407,408,451/452; only names and significance, detailed procedures and minute details are not expected).

Pharmacognosy

  • Introductory Pharmacognosy; Historical development, modern concept and scope of Pharmacognosy. The significance of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic and Siddha.
  • Classification of crude drugs: Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and chemotaxonomic methods: organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs. Plants, animals and minerals: marine products: plant tissue culture.
  • Factors influencing quality of crude drugs: Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude and soil. Endogenous factors: Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants. Production factors including collection, drying, storage and transport methods. Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell inclusions, anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots: barks, fruits and seeds.
  • Techniques in microscopy: Details of mountants, clearing agents, chemomicroscopic (microchemical) reagents.
  • Introduction to phytoconstituents: Definition, classification, chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of: carbohydrates and their derivatives, fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, lipids and volatile oils.
  • Principles of plant classification: Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to:
    • Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms).
    • Fungi: Ergot, Yeast and penicillium.
    • Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra).
    • Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae and Apiaceae.
    • Pteridophytes: Male fern.
  • Pharmaceutical aids: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Starches, acacia gum, tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibers, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselguhr.
  • Animal products: Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Shellac, cochineal, cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.
  • Plant products: Introduction to plant bitters, sweeteners, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing agents.
  • Toxic drugs: Study of allergens, hallucinogens, narcotics.
  • Enzymes: Biological sources, preparation, characters, and uses of: diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast, pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase and streptokinase.
  • Natural pesticides and insecticides: Introduction to herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, & neem.
  • Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs: Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods. Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects.
  • Quantitative microscopy: Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method. Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters.
  • Biogenetic pathways: Formation of primary and secondary metabolites. Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway. Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.
  • Carbohydrates & lipids: Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents, and uses of: Plantago, bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids.
  • Tannins: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test and uses of: Pale catechu, black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna.
  • Volatile oils: Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Black pepper, turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel, lemongrass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandalwood.
  • Resinous drugs: Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test, adulterants and uses of: benzoin, Peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth, ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum.
  • Glycosides: Nature and classification. Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna, quassia, dioscorea, quillaia, glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, withania, bitter almond. Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides.
  • Alkaloids: Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscymous, stramonium, duboisea, coca, coffee, tea, cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, kurchi, ephedra, colchicum, vasaca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum. Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and opium alkaloids.
  • Extraction and Isolation Techniques: General methods used for the extraction, isolation and identification of alkaloids, lipids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins. Application of column, paper and thin layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.
  • Phytopharmaceuticals: Isolation, identification and estimation of: caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid, diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine, quinine, andrographolides and guggul lipids.
  • Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs: Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelines-Extractive values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC and HPLC) for determination of chromatographic markers. Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations.
  • Herbal formulations: Principals involved in Ayurveda, Sidha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines. Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, ghutika, tailia, churna, avaleha, ghrita and bhasmas: Unani formulations like majooms, Safoofs. Determination of alcohol contents in arishtas & asavas.
  • Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils: Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.
  • Herbal cosmetics: Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna, hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).
  • Traditional herbal drugs: Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological and clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua), chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).
  • Plants based industries and research institutes in India: Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.
  • Patents: Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to phytoconstituents.
  • Ayurvedic system of medicine: Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in ayurveda, types of the drug formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas, arishtas, watika, churna, tailas, ghruta, lep.
  • Homeopathic system of medicine: Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, source of homeopathic medicines and important homeopathic drugs and their uses

Pharmaceutical Analysis

  • Importance of quality control in pharmacy
  • Acid-base titrations: Definitions of acids & bases according to Arrhenius & Lewis theory. Definitions of normality, molarity, molality, & equivalent weight. Primary & secondary standards with examples & differences between them. Standardization of strong acids & bases using primary & secondary standards. Preparation of standard solutions of & calculations of equivalent weights of oxalic acid, potassium acid phthalate, calcium chloride dihydrate, & sodium carbonate. Calculation of factors involved in standardization of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, & oxalic acid. Direct, back & differential titrations. Application of direct & back titrations to preparations like boric acid & borax in a mixture, ammoniated mercury, milk of magnesia, & zinc oxide ointment. Law of mass action, acid-base equilibria, pH scale, pH & hydronium ion concentrations in aqueous systems, calculations of pH for weak acids & weak bases. Use & applications of pH meter. Hydrolysis of salts. Strengths of acids & bases, dissociation constant. Theory of acid-base indicators. Neutralization [titration] curves. Definition, different types of buffers [chemical & biological], & their composition. Buffer capacity, buffered isotonic solutions. Calculations involving preparation of various buffer capacity solutions. Biological & pharmaceutical applications of buffers.
  • Non-aqueous titrations: Acid-base definitions according to Lowry-Bronsted, Lewis & Arrhenius concept. Factors affecting strengths of acids & bases. Intrinsic structure & surrounding environment. Protophilic, protogenic, amphiprotic & aprotic solvents. Acid-base equilibria in non- aqueous media. Titrants & indicators used for the assay of acidic & basic substances. Preparation of perchloric acid, formation of onium ion. Assay of 1o , 2o , 3o amines & amine hydrochlorides using perchloric acid & the reactions involved in it. Standardization of sodium ethoxide solution. Assay of phenols & phenobarbitone. General applications of non-aqueous titrations
  • Oxidation-reduction titrations: Definition of oxidation, reduction, oxidizing & reducing agent. Equivalent weight, the concept of half reactions. Systematic balancing of half reactions with respect to:
    • a. Oxalic acid-KMnO4
    • b. FeSO4-ceric nitrate
    • c. I2-sodium thiosulphate solution titrations.

Calculation of equivalent weight of oxalic acid, KMnO4, FeSO4, permanganate & I2 from halfreactions. Calculation of factors for titrations mentioned in a, b & c.

    1. Redox titrations: KMnO4 as a self indicator, it’s preparation, standardization, & use in the assay of ferrous gluconate tablets, H2O2, & NaNO2 solution.
    2. Iodimetric & iodometric titrations. Definitions & difference between iodimetry & iodometry. Preparation, standardization of iodine solution. Assay of ascorbic acid & sulphur ointment by iodimetry. Assay of copper sulphate & ferric chloride by iodometry.
    3. Bromometric titrations.
    4. Iodate titrations. Definition. Preparation, standardization & use of KIO3 in the assay of ascorbic acid & KI.
    5. Cerimetric titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of ceric solutions in the assay of paracetamol tablets. Its advantages over permanganate solutions.
    6. Bromine titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of bromine solution in the assay of phenol & isoniazid tablets.
    7. Potassium dichromate titrations. Preparation, standardization & use of potassium dichromate solution in the assay of ferrous ammonium sulphate.
  • Precipitation titrations: The principle of solubility product & sparingly soluble salts. Titrants & indicators used in Mohr’s, Volhard’s, & Fajan’s methods. Preparation & standardization of silver nitrate & ammonium thiocyanate solutions. Assay of sodium chloride by Mohr’s method, use of nitrobenzene in the assay of halides, ammonium chloride, & thiourea by Volhard’s method. Calculation of factors in argentometric titrations. Titration curve method. General applications of precipitation titrations.
  • Complexometric titrations: Difference between double salts & co-ordinate compounds. Definitions of coordination number of metal ions, ligands- uni-, bi-, & multidentate. Complexing, chelating, & sequestering agents with respective examples. Structure of complexes of platinum with ammonia. Ethylenediamine tetraacetate [EDTA] as a multidentate ligand in complexometry. Coordinate compounds of EDTA with bi-, tri-, & tetravalent metal ions. Stability of complexes & factors affecting it, use of buffers in EDTA titrations. Selective analysis of ions based on pH adjustments, use of masking & demasking agents, pM or metal ion indicators. Standardization of EDTA solution, titration curves, and examples of assays carried out by direct & back titrations & by replacement of one complex by the other. Applications of complexometry in the assays of calcium gluconate, milk of magnesia, zinc undecenoate ointment, & aluminium hydroxide gel. Assay of NaF by indirect titration.
  • Gravimetry: Principles of gravimetry. Factors affecting precipitation, formation, & properties of the precipitate. Colloidal state. Impurities in the precipitate, conditions of precipitation. Precipitation from homogenous solutions, washing, drying, & ignition of the precipitate. Experimental techniques of drying & ignition. Applications of gravimetry in pharmacy.
  • Extraction techniques: Liquid-liquid extraction, separation of mixtures by extraction. Distribution law. Successive & multiple extraction [Craig method], continuous counter- current extraction. Effect of temperature & pH on extraction. Inert solute, associate ion pair formation, emulsion problem in extractions. Applications in pharmacy.
  • Potentiometry: Theory, ion-selective electrodes, measurement of potential, red-ox titration curve, pH measurement, the relation of pH to potential. Applications in pharmacy.
  • Miscellaneous methods of analysis: Diazotization titrations. Kjeldahl nitrogen estimation. Karl Fisher titrations. Liquid gelenicals. Oxygen flask Determination of alcohol content in liquid gelenicals. Oxygen flask combustion method.
  • Calibration: Calibration of instruments.
  • General principles of spectroscopy: Wave-particle duality, wave properties, particulate properties. Line & band spectrum. Electromagnetic spectrum. Absorption & emission spectroscopy. Understanding of terms such as absorbance, transmittance, absorptivities, molar absorptivity, E 1 cm 1%, λmax, the effect of solvent & pH on λmax.
  • Ultraviolet-visible: Spectrometry Different electronic transitions. Auxochromes & their effects, auxochromic, bathochromic & hypsochromic shifts [red & blue shifts]. Beer-Lambert law, its derivation, deviations in Beer’s law. Single & double beam spectrophotometers covering sources of radiations, different monochromators, detectors such as barrier cell, photocell, photomultiplier tube. Photodiode array detector. Applications of this technique in qualitative & quantitative estimations giving emphasis on problem-solving. Fieser-Woodward rules for calculations of theoretical λmax values.
  • Spectrofluorimetry: Principle, definitions & types of luminescence. Mechanism of fluorescence & phosphorescence. Singlet & triplet states & intersystem crossing. Fluorescence yield & factors affecting it. Quenching of fluorescence & fluorescence quenchers. Structure & fluorescence. A brief discussion of instrumentation. Applications of fluorimetry in pharmacy.
  • Flame photometry & atomic absorption spectrometry: Principle & instrumentation with emphasis on working & importance of different components. Temperature, flame absorption & emission profiles. Interferences & their avoidance. Quantitative estimations & applications.
  • Infrared spectrometry: Infrared region in EM spectrum. The principle, different stretching & bending vibrations. Components [& their working] of a dispersive instrument. Fourier transform [FT] technique, FT instruments & their comparison with dispersive instruments. Sample handling techniques. Functional group & fingerprint regions in the spectrum. Functional groups identification & their use in the characterization of compounds. Problems based on the identification of functional groups from spectra of unknown compounds.
  • Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry: The principle involved in the technique. Knowledge about fundamental terms involved such as quantized absorption, flipping of nucleus, spin number, magnetic moment, magnetogyric ratio, relaxation, etc. Equations relating these terms to the frequency of radiation & magnetic field [without derivation of the equations]. Types of relaxation processes. Low & high-resolution instruments. A brief discussion on the low-resolution instrumentation [60 MHz]. Quantitative knowledge of the relationship between MHz & magnetic field. An introduction to superconductivity magnets. Solvents & reference standards used. Setting up of NMR scale. Sample preparation. Shielding & deshielding of a proton & its effect on chemical shifts. Discussion on & importance of equivalent & non equivalent protons [number of signals], chemical shifts [position of signal] & their calculation from the spectrum, chemical shifts of different H’s, splitting [multiplicity] of a signal, coupling constants [J values], integration [area under the signal]. Importance of these terms in identification [or confirmation] of different functional groups. Significance & contribution of J value in stereochemistry. Prediction [expected theoretical values] of chemical shifts & multiplicities for all protons from simple structures containing up to 12-15 carbons. An introduction to FT-technique & its significance in 13C-NMR spectrometry.
  • Mass spectrometry: Principle. Low & high-resolution instruments. Components & importance of each in brief. Different types of mass spectrometric techniques. Brief knowledge of Chemical Ionization mass spectrometry. Calculations of hydrogen deficiency index [HDI] or unsaturation index [UI]. Base or parent peak, molecular ion, M + 1, M + 2 peaks. Calculations of molecular weight based on M +1 & M + 2 peaks. Formation of molecular ion & further fragmentation. Rearrangements in mass spectrometry. Major modes of fragmentations of hydrocarbons, hydroxyl compounds, halogen compounds, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and amines. Introduction [only] to recent advances in MS.
  • Polarography: Principle & instrumentation. Ilkovich equation [no derivation] & its importance. Dropping mercury electrode [DME], saturated calomel electrode. Liquid-liquid junction potential, polarographic cell. Explanation of origin of the S-shaped C-V curve. Applications of this technique. Amperometric titrations, principles, instrumentation, & applications.
  • Nephelometry & Turbidimetry: Principles, Tyndall effect. Duboscq turbidimeter. Eeel’s nephelometer. Applications.
  • Chromatography: Principle, rate & plate theory, Van Deemter equation & the parameters affecting separation/band broadening. Classification of chromatography, retention factor. A detailed study of thin layer chromatography [TLC], preparative TLC, paper chromatography [PC], column chromatography, gas chromatography [GC / GLC]. Qualitative & quantitative applications of the above techniques. An introduction to high performance TLC [HPTLC], comparison of TLC & HPTLC. A brief introduction to high pressure / performance liquid chromatography [HPLC].
  • Miscellaneous: An introduction to electrophoresis. An introduction to lasers & masers. Statistical treatment to experimental data. Sampling techniques & applications in pharmaceutical industry.

Biochemistry

  • Cell: Revision of ultrastructure of the cell, functions of various cellular constituents. Applications of biochemical principles to the pharmacy.
  • Carbohydrates: Types of carbohydrates, their functions, digestion, & absorption. Aerobic & anaerobic oxidation with energetics. Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, & gluconeogenesis. Hexose monophosphate shunt [HMP shunt]. Diseases associated with carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Proteins: Different types of proteins. Their functions, digestion & absorption. Denaturation & its effect on biological activity. Renaturation of proteins. Urea formation, urea cycle, creatinine formation. Transamination & deamination. Proteins as enzymes.
  • Lipids: Different types of lipids. Their functions, digestion, absorption & metabolism. (Beta-Oxidation of fatty acids with energetics. Biosynthesis of cholesterol [from acetate], adrenocorticoids, androgens, progesterone, estrogens, & bile acids / salts. Ketone bodies, their formation & biochemical significance. Diseases associated with lipid metabolism.
  • Vitamins: Definition. Classification, structures [except B12] biochemical role, sources, daily requirements, & deficiency symptoms. Vitamins as co-factors in biochemical reactions.
  • Biological oxidations & reductions: Oxidation-reduction systems in the body their role. Oxidative phosphorylation & Electron transport chain. Cytochromes & inhibitors of the same.
  • Enzymes: Classification & their various roles. Enzyme co-factors. Enzyme kinetics. Michaelis-Menton equation along with its transformations. Double reciprocal plot. Factors affecting enzyme action. Enzyme inhibition, competitive & non-competitive, & kinetics.
  • Nucleic acids: Different types of nucleic acids [NAs] & their composition. Purine & pyrimidine bases, sugars, & phosphoric acid. Nucleosides & nucleotides. Formation of NAs & their backbone. Different ways of representing DNA & RNA molecules. Physico-chemical properties of NAs. Their stability in acidic & basic solutions. Isolation, purification & identification, buoyant density, sedimentation coefficient, & Svedberg constant of NAs. De-novo biosynthesis of NAs. DNA & the Watson-Crick model & its features. DNA as the bearer of genetic information. The Central dogma of molecular genetics & the processes defined in the same. Replication of DNA. Different types of RNAs with their special features & functions. Minor or rare bases. Transcription & translation. Different post-translational modifications of proteins. Triplet codon & the codon dictionary. Mutations. An introduction to different types of mutations. Their nature & repair. 9. Hereditary diseases. Eliptocytosis, spherocytosis, HNPCC, diabetes insipidus.

Biotechnology

  1. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture

Structure of plant cell, DNA, Genes and chromosomes.

  1. Cell and tissue culture
    1. Requirements.
    2. Callus culture, suspension culture, batch culture.
    3. The concept of somatic hybridization, somatic embryogenesis.
  2. Processes and applications
    1. Isolation and immobilization of enzymes and plant cells and application.
    2. Protoplast and cell fusion.
    3. Germplasm conservation.
    4. Production of secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture.
    5. Gene transfer techniques.
  1. Animal Cell Culture: Introduction to animal cell culture, medium used in ATC. Use of FCS, primary culture, secondary culture, cell line. Cloning: concept and application with technical hurdles. Transgenic animals as a source of food, organs and tissues, concept of xeno transplant.
  2. Fermentation Technology and Industrial Microbiology:1. Fermentation as a biochemical process, types of fermentation.2. Fermenter – working and construction, accessory components, modification.3. Fermentation monitoring and in situ recovery of products.
  3. Recombinant DNA Technology Basic concepts
    • Introduction.
    • Role of a restriction endonuclease, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, Reverse transcriptase.
  4. Process and Applications

a) Constructing Recombinant DNA molecules.

  • DNA Clones sources of DNA for cloning.
  • DNA vectors, role of expression vectors.
  • Host cell for recombinant work.
  • Method for screening and selecting transformants.
  • Expression of foreign genes.
  • Uses of recombinant DNA.

b) PCR and applications.

  • Human gene therapy concept and applications.

c) Drug delivery systems in gene therapy.

Physical Chemistry

  • Composition and physical states of matter
  • Colligative properties
  • Thermodynamics
  • Refractive index
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Ionic equilibrium
  • Kinetics

Physical Pharmacy

  • Matter, properties of matter
  • Micromeritics and powder rheology
  • Surface and interfacial phenomenon
  • Viscosity and rheology
  • Dispersion systems
  • Complexation
  • Buffer
  • Solubility

Organic Chemistry

  • General principles
  • Different classes of compounds
  • Protection and deprotection of groups
  • Aromaticity and chemistry of aromatic compounds
  • Different aromatic classes of compounds
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Carbonyl chemistry
  • Heterocyclic chemistry
  • Bridged rings
  • Kinetic and thermodynamic control
  • Stereochemistry
  • Carbohydrates
  • Amino acids and proteins
  • Pericyclic reactions

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

  • Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
  • Medicinal chemistry

Pharmaceutics

  • Pharmacy profession and introduction to pharmaceuticals
  • Introduction to dosage form
  • Sources of drug information
  • Allopathic dosage form
  • Crude extract
  • Allergenic extract
  • Biological products
  • Pharmaceutical plant, location, layout
  • Dosage form necessities and additives
  • Powders
  • Capsules
  • Tablets
  • Parenterals : product requiring sterile packaging
  • Suspensions
  • Emulsions
  • Suppositories
  • Semisolids
  • Liquids(solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses)
  • Pharmaceutical aerosols
  • Ophthalmic preparations
  • Preformulations
  • Stability of formulated products
  • Prolonged action pharmaceuticals
  • Novel drug delivery system
  • GMP and validation
  • Packaging materials
  • Cosmetics
  • Pilot plant scale-up techniques

Pharmacology

  • General pharmacology
  • Nerohumoral transmission in autonomic and central nervous system
  • Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system
  • Pharmacology of central nervous system
  • Pharmacology of cardiovascular system
  • Drugs acting on urinary system
  • Drugs acting on respiratory system
  • Pharmacology of endocrine system
  • Chemotherapy
  • Autacoids and their antagonists
  • Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract
  • Chronopharmacology
  • Immunopharmacology
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Principles of toxicology

Pharmacognosy

  • Introductory pharmacognosy
  • Classification of crude drugs
  • Factors influencing quality of crude drugs
  • Techniques in microscopy
  • Introduction to phytoconstituents
  • Principles of plant classification
  • Pharmaceutical aids
  • Animal products
  • Plant products
  • Toxic drugs
  • Enzymes
  • Natural pesticides and insecticides
  • Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs
  • Quantitative microscopy
  • Biogenetic pathways
  • Carbohydrates and lipids
  • Tannins
  • Volatile oils
  • Resinous drugs
  • Glycosides
  • Alkaloids
  • Extraction and isolation techniques
  • Phytopharmaceuticals
  • Quality control and standardization of herbal drugs
  • Herbal formulations
  • Worldwide trade of crude drugs and volatile oils
  • Herbal cosmetics
  • Traditional herbal drugs
  • Plants based industries and research institutes in India
  • Patents
  • Ayurvedic system of medicine
  • Homeopathic system of medicine

Pharmaceutical Analysis

  • Importance of quality control in pharmacy
  • Acid-base titrations
  • Non-aqueous titrations
  • Oxidation-reduction titrations
  • Precipitation titrations
  • Complexometric titrations
  • Gravimetry
  • Extraction techniques
  • Potentiometry
  • Miscellaneous methods of analysis
  • Calibration
  • General principles of spectroscopy
  • Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry
  • Spectrofluorimetry
  • Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrometry
  • Infrared spectrometry
  • Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Polarography
  • Nephelometry and turbidimetry
  • Chromatography

Biochemistry

  • Cell
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Vitamins
  • Biological oxidations and reductions
  • Enzymes
  • Nucleic acids
  • Hereditary diseases

Biotechnology

  • Plant cell and tissue culture
  • Animal cell culture
  • Fermentation technology and industrial microbiology
  • Recombinant DNA technology
  • Process and applications
  • Biotechnology derived products

Microbiology

  • Introduction to microbiology
  • Microscopy and staining technique
  • Biology of microorganisms
  • Fungi and viruses
  • Aseptic technique
  • Sterilization and disinfection
  • Microbial spoilage
  • Vaccines and sera
  • Microbial assay

Pathophysiology

  • Basic principles of cell injury and adaptation
  • Basic mechanisms of inflammation and repair
  • Disorders of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  • Disorders of homeostasis: white blood cells, lymphoid tissues, and red blood cells related diseases
  • Immunopathology including amyloidosis
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neoplastic diseases
  • Pathophysiology of common diseases
  • Laboratory tests for liver function tests and kidney function tests

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

  • Bio-pharmaceutics
  • Bio-availability and bio-equivalence
  • Biopharmaceutical statistics

Human Anatomy and Physiology

  • Cell physiology
  • The blood
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Respiratory system
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sense organs
  • Skeletal system
  • Central nervous system
  • Urinary system
  • Endocrine glands
  • Reproductive system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Lymphatic system

Pharmaceutical Engineering

  • Fluid flow
  • Heat transfer
  • Evaporation
  • Distillation
  • Drying
  • Size reduction and size separation
  • Extraction
  • Mixing
  • Crystallization
  • Filtration and centrifugation
  • Dehumidification and humidity control
  • Refrigeration and air conditioning
  • Material of constructions
  • Automated process control systems
  • Industrial hazards and safety precautions

Pharmaceutical Management

  • Introduction to management
  • Planning and forecasting
  • Organization
  • Research management
  • Inventory management
  • Communication
  • Marketing research
  • Leadership and motivation
  • Human resource and development (hrd)
  • Gatt
  • World trade organization (wto) and trade-related intellectual property rights (trips)
  • Standard institutions and regulatory authorities

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