Brahmo Samaj PDF

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Brahmo Samaj

The Brahmo Samaj is the societal component of the Brahmo religion which is mainly practiced today as the Adi Dharm, after its eclipse in Bengal, consequent to the exit of the Tattwabodini Sabha from its ranks in 1859. Brahmo Samaj was a monotheistic section of Hinduism founded by Raja Ram Mohun Roy in 1828. Brahmo Samaj Movement is one of the significant reform movements in India that aims to bring a renaissance to Bengal by fighting against the prevailing evil practices in the society, particularly the practice of Sati and the caste system, and emphasising the educational, religious, and social reform.

It was conceived at Kolkata in 1830 by Dwarkanath Tagore and Ram Mohan Roy as a reformation of the prevailing Brahminism of the time (specifically Kulin practices) and began the Bengal Renaissance in the nineteenth century, pioneering all religious, social and educational advancement of the Hindu community.

Brahmo Samaj  – Introduction

The Brahmo Samaj was a monotheistic sect of Hinduism. The movement began through meetings of Bengalis in Calcutta in 1828. One of the leading figures was Ram Mohun Roy. This group was known as the Brahmo Sabha. In 1831, Roy visited England as a reforming ambassador and died there in 1833.

The chief aim of the Brahmo Samaj was the worship of the eternal God. It was against priesthood, rituals and sacrifices. It focused on prayers, meditation and reading of the scriptures. In 1814, Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the “Atmiya Sabha”. It became known as Brahmo Samaj in 1828. Devendranath Thakur carried him forward. Later Keshav Chandra Sen joined. Due to the differences between them, Keshav Chandra Sen founded the institution named “Bharatvarsha Brahmo Samaj” in 1866.

Brahmo Samaj Principal Objectives

  • God: It believes in an ‘Infinite Singularity.’ The ‘Infinite Singularity’ is thought to be infinite, indivisible, imperceptible, and undefinable. It rejects Avatars, reincarnation, and rebirths. It also condemns idolatry and polytheism.
  •  Love: It promotes reverence for all living things while cautioning its members against idolizing anything since only the Singularity, or “Brahman,” is worthy of worship.
  • Scripture: Brahmo Samajists are adherents of Brahmo Samaj who do not believe in books, prophets, or intermediaries between Brahman and the human soul. They do not believe in Karma teachings.
  • Brahmo Samajists, on the other hand, might believe in Karma and reincarnation, depending on their beliefs.
  • Liberation: Although the Brahmo Samaj supports the idea that the soul is immortal and is ready to merge with Brahman, it does not support the idea of salvation or “Mukthi.”
  • Additionally, it rejects the ideas of hell and heaven. Knowledge – The adherents uphold truth, free will, and knowledge.
  • They also believe that righteousness is the only possible way to live. The Samaj supports secular values but opposes sectarianism and forces one’s religion on others.
  • Superstition: The Brahmo Samaj opposes superstition and dogma. In reality, superstitious behaviours such as ‘Sati’ were one of the fundamental motivations for the formation of the Brahmo Samaj.
  • It also justifies the alleged insignificance of nonscientific rituals, priests, and places of devotion such as temples, churches, and mosques.
  • Totalitarianism: All totalitarian ideologies are condemned by the Brahmo Samaj.
  • Additionally, it condemns unjustified and bigoted differences based on race, caste, religion, and other factors.
  • These disparities were seen negatively because they frequently catalyzed interpersonal conflict.

Brahmo Samaj’s Importance

  • Condemned polytheism and idolatry
  • Samaj has abandoned all belief in divine incarnations
  • Refuted the idea that any text might be regarded as having ultimate power over rational thought and conscience
  • It was critical of the caste system
  • However, it took no firm stance on karma and soul transmutation doctrines

Later, Keshab Chandra Sen’s 13-year-old daughter married a Cooch-Behar prince. Many participants objected to these practices since they were contrary to the principles of the Brahmo Samaj. As a result, they decided to split.

Furthermore, just a handful of them did not accept his “Doctrine of God in Conscience.” As a result, in 1878, Sadharan Brahmo Samaj members got separated. Anand Mohan Bose, Derozian Shib Chandra, Sivnath Shastri, and Vijay Krishna commanded the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.

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