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Sapiens A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari
The book surveys the history of humankind from the evolution of archaic human species in the Stone Age up to the twenty-first century, focusing on Homo sapiens. Sapiens A Brief History of Humankind is a book by Yuval Noah Harari, first published in Hebrew in Israel in 2011 based on a series of lectures Harari taught at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and in English in 2014.
The book surveys the history of humankind from the evolution of archaic human species in the Stone Age up to the twenty-first century, focusing on Homo sapiens. The account is situated within a framework provided by the natural sciences, particularly evolutionary biology.
Sapiens A Brief History of Humankind Book Content
- An Animal of no significance
- The tree of knowledge
- A day in the life of Adam & Eve
- The flood
- History’s biggest fraud
- Building pyramids
- Memory overload
- There is no justice in history
- The arrow of history
- The scent of money
- Imperial visions
- The law of religion
- The secret of success
- The discovery of ignorance
- The marriage of science and empire
- The capitalist creed
- The wheels of industry
- A permanent revolution
- And they lived happily ever after
- The end of homo sapiens
- The animal became a God
Timeline of History or Universe
|Years Before the Present||Events Happened|
|13.5 billion||Matter and energy appear. Beginning of physics. Atoms and molecules appear. Beginning of chemistry.|
|4.5 billion||Formation of planet Earth.|
|3.8 billion||Emergence of organisms. Beginning of biology.|
|6 million||Last common grandmother of humans and chimpanzees.|
|2.5 million||Evolution of the genus Homo in Africa. First stone tools.|
|2 million||Humans spread from Africa to Eurasia. Evolution of different human species.|
|500,000||Neanderthals evolve in Europe and the Middle East.|
|300,000||Daily usage of fire.|
|200,000||Homo sapiens evolves in East Africa.|
|70,000||The Cognitive Revolution. Emergence of active language. Beginning of history. Sapiens spread out of Africa|
|45,000||Sapiens settle Australia. Extinction of Australian megafauna.|
|30,000||Extinction of Neanderthals.|
|16,000||Sapiens settle America. Extinction of American megafauna.|
|13,000||Extinction of Homo foresiensis. Homo sapiens the only surviving human species.|
|12,000||The Agricultural Revolution. Domestication of plants and animals. Permanent settlements.|
|5,000||First kingdoms, script and money. Polytheistic religions.|
|4,250||First empire – the Akkadian Empire of Sargon.|
|2,500||Invention of coinage – a universal money.
The Persian Empire – a universal political order ‘for thebeneit of all humans’.
Buddhism in India – a universal truth ‘to liberate all beings from suffering’.
|500||The Scientifc Revolution. Humankind admits its ignorance and begins to acquire unprecedented power. Europeans begin to conquer America and the oceans. The entire planet becomes a single historical arena. The rise of capitalism.|
|200||The Industrial Revolution. Family and community are replaced by state and market. Massive extinction of plants and animals.|
|The Present||Humans transcend the boundaries of planet Earth. Nuclear weapons threaten the survival of humankind. Organisms are increasingly shaped by intelligent design rather than natural selection.|
|The Future||Intelligent design becomes the basic principle of life? Homo sapiens is replaced by superhumans?|
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